Planetary Cartography Laboratory history

The first shooting side of the Moon (October 1959), as well as Earth observation from space soon after the launch of satellites led to a number of research laboratories, ushered in such areas as IPRZ & Planetary Cartography.

In MIIGAiK already in 1961 at the Department of aerial photographs was organized by the corresponding Problem Laboratory. Directed it, Boris Nikolayevich Rodionov, was in charge at the time of this department. His deputy was John L. Winter. Laboratory operated in strict secrecy. Among employees who started then, and then almost entire life devoted to this subject (this area of research), were Chesnokov, Alexander Dorofeev, Boris Dunayev, Boris V. Nepoklonov, Vladimir Kiselev, Irina Isavnina, Victor Krasikov and other professionals. The team of mostly consisted of graduates of the institute, although there were experts from the outside. For example, Yuri L. Biryukov, just graduated from Mekhmat them. MV Lomonosov Moscow State University. The main task of the laboratory was the mastery of specific processing of satellite images, their gridded.

The first major work of the laboratory in the field of planetary cartography began processing the first panoramas of the lunar surface, transmitted to Earth AMS Luna-9 in the fall of 1966, when again was first carried out a soft landing stations on the lunar surface and it became possible to see and study the microrelief of the Moon. The results of this work is reflected in the book "The first panorama of the lunar surface," published the USSR in 1967.

During this period MIIGAiK have not yet participated in the shooting side of the moon AMS Luna-3 "and" Zond-3 "(1959 and 1965) and their subsequent processing. These studies were conducted in the SAI under the guidance of JN Lipsky. (See Atlas of the side of the moon. Part I, 1961 CH.II. 1967).

However, it is then based on opto-mechanical workshops of the institute was started preparations for the creation of cameras to shoot the side of the moon and the earth by a series of stations Zond -5, -6, -7, -8. These machines were not only take pictures of parts of the back side, but also to return to Earth, bringing her film footage. In 1968, cameras were installed on the spacecraft which started towards the Moon.

This event coincided with a reorganization of space research in general, as well as changes in the laboratory. In 1968 it was officially announced the establishment of the structure of the USSR Academy of Sciences a new research institute, namely the Institute of Space Research (IKI) of the USSR, which in the main idea to play the role as if "the Soviet NASA, designed to organize and direct space exploration. In this regard, a number of research laboratories that are directly related to space research, was invited to go to create institutions. Laboratory MIIGAiK also was invited to the USSR Academy of Sciences Space Research Institute. Part of the staff, headed by BN Rodionov went into the system of the Academy of Sciences, and the rest in her staff began processing materials received from the AMC series "Probe". As a result of these studies was prepared by the third part of the Atlas side of the Moon (1970), as well as a series of maps in the captured portion of the back side of the moon up to the scale 1:500 000.

In 1970 the laboratory was transformed into the Complex troubled economic contracts lab, headed by VD Bolshakov. His deputy was BV Krasnopevtseva.

In 1972, together with the Laboratory of Comparative Planetology Space Research Institute of the USSR was compiled and printed map of the crater Le Monnier (scale 1:50 000) on the landing and movement of self-propelled vehicle Lunokhod 2. For the first time on the map have been proposed name for the small forms of the lunar terrain immediately around the landing site. Since the moon crater appeared gentle, Middle Cape, Furrow invisible, etc. In consequence of this proposal has become the norm of the planetary nomenclature. In particular, the name for a small form appears at the Apollo series of spacecraft landings.

In 1975, together with the ISR of the USSR was compiled and released the first domestic map of Mars (the first blank, and then the relief washing)

Laboratory planetary cartography emerged as an independent scientific field and the structural unit in the late 70's in the structure of the Integrated problematic economic contracts lab, headed by VD Bolshakov.

1980-1989 years, major efforts were concentrated on developing the structure and content of the first comprehensive atlas of the terrestrial planets and their satellites, and then a series of planned maps, tables and charts.

Since 1986 he has started to develop projections for the bodies of irregular surfaces. The result was the creation of maps and globes of Phobos on the basis of a triaxial ellipsoid as a surface relevance. Map (1988) and Globe (1990) first demonstrated at the COSPAR session in The Hague in 1991

Years 1990-1992, the preparation for publication and publication of the Atlas of the terrestrial planets and their satellites. " Atlas includes over 70 charts and maps, charts and was the first attempt to present the information available in comparative Planetological aspect.

1989-1990 years - preparing for the publication of "Comprehensive Atlas of the Moon."

In 1996, the (unsuccessful launching of the Mars-96) funding contract laboratory to have ceased. This year it exists at the Department of Economics and Business at the Faculty of Management territory of the Moscow State University of Geodesy Cartography mainly on a voluntary basis under the auspices of the International Cartographic Association (ICA), first at the Working Group on Planetary Cartography, and since 1999 with the support of the Commission on the planet cartography, ICA.

Since 1999, the International Project under the auspices of the ICA creates a series of multi-language maps of planets and their satellites. The project also involved Technical University of Dresden (Germany) University. Eotvos (Hungary), University of Western Ontario (Canada).

On the project "Multilingual maps of planets and satellites," published map of Mars (1999), map of Venus (2001), map of the Moon (2003), the map of Mercury (2005), a map of Phobos and Deimos (2006).

Prepared and published by Atlas: Astronomy. Solar System (2005).